Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

 Cytomegalovirus is transmitted to fetus via placenta at any period of pregnancy equally. When infection occurs in first trimester of pregnancy, 15% of cases end with spontaneous misbirth without virus damage of fetus, i.e. infectious process is found in placenta.

There exists a hypothesis that  at the beginning placenta is infected which, however,  continues to function as a barrier in transmission of cytomegalovirus to fetus. When occurs deterioration of body barrier properties, the virus may enter blood of fetus.

90% of infected fetuses have no signs of infection. 5 – 15% of infected newborns will have cytomegalovirus after birth.  Infection of child may occur during birth when child passes through birth canal. Also this virus may be found in breast milk, therefore more than half children that are fed with breast milk may get cytomegalovirus in first year of their life.

Manifestation of congenital cytomegalovirus is caracterized with retardation in growth and development, increase of spleen and liver, haematological defections, dermatic eruptions, yellow disease and other signs of infection.

However, damage of central nervous system is most dangerous disease manifestation characterized with microcephalism, cerebral atrophy and hearing loss. In brain tissue are found calcifications that are a sign of future development of mental retardation and other neurologic disorders in infected children.

Mortality in very high (10 - 15%) in newborns who developed signs of disease. In rest of 85 – 90% of survived children may be observed neurologic deviations and  mental retardation.

Friday, May 4, 2012

Cytomegalovirus Signs And Symptoms

Most people (95 – 98%) infected with cytomegalovirus via primary infection, show no signs, though some people may complain on symptoms similar to mononucleosis.

Cytomegalovirus symptoms include fever, sore throat, muscle pains, weakness and diarrhea. Sometimes do appear enanthesis, lymph nodes increase, naso-pharyngitis, increase of liver and spleen.

Blood tests may show low amount of thrombocytes, increased amount of lymphocytes and high rate of hepatic enzymes.

Cytomegalovirus presents danger for those with low immunity: people after organ transplantation, HIV carriers and people with cancer.

In those patients infection may show in form of severe inflammation of the lungs, kidneys, retina and gastrointestinal tract organs. Typically virus damages brain tissues which leads to  encephalopathy. Cytomegalovirus may show with inflammation of genito-urinary system.

In women this variant of disease course supposes development of inflammations in female genitalia such as cervical erosion (cervicitis),  inflammations in lining of the uterus (endometritis), vagina and ovaries.

In men cytomegalovirus infection courses as a rule without symptoms or may occur orchids (inflammation of testicles). In some cases occurs inflammation of urethra (ureteritis). Thus, in case of immunodeficiency disorder exists risk for inflammatory process spreading due to weakness of immunity which cannot fight the virus.